|Posted by Erick Kemal Fuad on March 15, 2011 at 10:15 PM||comments (0)|
For example: “I get up at 6 a.m.”
1. What time do you usually get up?
2. What time do you usually go to school?
3. What time do you usually have lunch?
4. What time do you usually do your homework?
5. What time do you usually watchTV?
6. What time do you usually go to bed?
|Posted by Erick Kemal Fuad on January 1, 2010 at 8:06 PM||comments (0)|
Apa jadinya jika para pemuda muslim yang berprofesi sebagai pemain sepak bola professional di Negara-negara Eropa bersilaturahmi dan bergabung dalam sebuah tim �Fastabiqul Khoirot FC� ?
Yang pasti D A H S Y A T!!!!
Di balik gemerlapnya Premier League (Liga Inggris), Serie A (Liga Italia), La Liga (Liga Spanyol) dan Liga Jerman, ternyata ada banyak pemain-pemain top liga-liga sepak bola Eropa yang beragama Islam. Yang agak mengejutkan saya ternyata Nicolas Anelka telah menjadi seorang muallaf ketika dia merumput di Fenerbahce Turki. Begitu juga dengan Zlatan Ibrahimovic. Bintang paling bersinar di Liga Eropa ini memang lahir dari keluarga muslim. Dia lahir dan besar di Malmo, kota terbesar ke tiga di Swedia dan tempat komunitas muslim paling besar di negeri itu. Ibra adalah imigran di Swedia dari ayah yang asli Bosnia dan Ibu keturunan Kroasia.
Mudah-mudahan pemain top Muslim istikomah mengamalkan ajaran Islam dengan baik dan memegang prinsip-prinsip Islam dengan baik juga. Seperti:
Stephen Appiah, sempat bingung di awal karirnya di Italia karena sulit menemukan makanan yang halal.
Frederic Kanoute sempat menolak memakai kostum klub yang disponsori rumah judi bahkan hingga ditutupi. Belakangan setelah berkonsultasi dengan penasehat spiritualnya dia melunak. Karena sponsor klubnya menjanjikan bahwa sebagian keuntungan digunakan untuk sosial.
Rami Shaaban mengaku hidup dengan panduan Al Quran. Kiper timnas Swedia ini senantiasa melafalkan beberapa ayat sebelum bertanding.
Kolo Toure merasa sebagai seorang muslim dia harus menghormati orang lain. Kesuksesan dirinya selalu disebutnya berkat doanya kepada Allah.
Frank Ribery mengakui bahwa Islam adalah sumber kekuatannnya di dalam dan di luar lapangan. Terutama ketika ia sempat mengalami masa sulit dalam karir dan ia menemukan Islam yang memberi kedamaian.
Berikut ini adalah Muslim Football Figures :
Zinedine Yazid Zidane (ex. Juventus dan Real Madrid): Three-time FIFA World Player of the Year.Tetapi mengaku �non-practicing Muslim� (tidak mempraktekkan ajaran Islam)
Zlatan Ibrahimovic - Has tatoos on both arms but Papa Sefik is a Bosnian-Muslim immigrant and his Mom is of Catholic Croat. Swedish star striker but dubbed 'overrated' by Martin O'neill. However, some reports has said that he is following his mother's religious belief.
Kolo Habib Tour� (Arsenal )
Yaya Toure (Barcelona)
Nicholas anelka (Chelsea) dengan nama Muslim Abdul-Salam Bilal. Pics of him visiting a Manchester mosque is easily available.
Mohammed �Momo� Sissoko (Juventus)
Ahmed Mido Hossam (Boro)
Hossam Ghaly (Totteham Hotspurs)
Franck �Bilal� Riberry (Bayern Muenchen). as alerted by Ayid Rabbani (Farid le tuh). Converted in 2002. Read the Du'a before taking a free kick against Korea recently. Married to long time Moroccan gf.
Hamit Antiltop (Bayern Muenchen)
Halil Antiltop (Shalke 04)
Mahamaddou Diarra (Real Madrid)
Eric Abidal (Barcelona)
Sulley Ali Muntari (Pompey)
Hassan �Brazzo� Salihamidzic (Juventus)
El-Hadji Diouf (Bolton)
Diomanssy Kamara (Fulham)
Mohammed Kallon (Al-Ittihad ext. Inter & Monaco)
Bruno Metsu - Former Senegalese National Team Coach. Converted when he was at Senegal. Now coach of Al-Ittihad.
Phillipe Troussier - former famous French player. Famously coached Japanese National Team. Lives in Morocco. Changes his name to Omar. Wife Dominique now Amina. Adopted 2 local Moroccan children.
George Weah - Liberian football great. Unsuccesful candidate for 2005 Liberian presidency. Born a Muslim. Went to Muslim children school. Converted to Christianity in the name of his grandmother who raised him. Later reconverted?
Robin van Persie - Arsenal and Holland starlet winger. Married a Morroccan but never talk about his religious position in public. Denied he is a Muslim as he was brought up liberal.
Rami Shaaban - Former Arsenal Swedish keeper who is of Egyptian descent. Mom is English.
Frederick Kanoute (Sevilla)- Malian striker. No wonder he celebrates by reciting the du'a after scoring goals. Bought a mosque in Seville.
Mehmet Scholl - German veteran Bayern Munich star midfielder who was denied call-up to the 2006 Fifa World Cup Germany National Team although being recommended by Karl-Heinz Rummenigge after coming back superbly from a long-standing injury. Born Muslim however as his parents' divorce when he was young, he turned aethist and now Buddhist.
Khalid Boulahrouz - Dutch national defender. Born in Nederlands but of Moroccan descent. Nicknamed Khalid der Kannibale (The Cannibal because of his ability to 'eat up' oppositions). Trying to emulate Mohammed Allach (Muslim-Dutch football great).
Armand Traore - Arsenal young left full back was seen many times praying before the start of the game.
Nacer Barazite - another Arsenal rising Dutch star of Moroccan descent. Pays tribute to Allah each time he scores a goal.
Pascal Cygan - clarifications needed!
Christian Negouai - It is so ironic that his first name is Christian but he is a practising Muslim, was forced to break his fast during ramadhan for drug test by the FA.
Karim Benzema - prolific Real Madrid striker.
Samir Nasri - Arsenal cheeky elusive winger.
Mamadou Sakho - PSG youngest ever captain. Potential center back.
Nuri Sahin - Dortmund's creative midfielder. Turkish.
Nordin Amrabat - PSV right midfielder.
Ismail Aissati - Ajax young midfielder.
Hatem Ben Arfa
Zesh Rehman - Pakistani British
Ibrahima Sonko - cousins with Bakari
Didier Domi - friends of Kanoute and Anelka
Phillipe Christanval - according to Thierry Henry in an interview with Aljazeera
Peter Luccin - as above
Mesut Ozil - Turkish creative midfielder.
Solomon Kalou - Chelsea forward.
Nathan Ellington - former WBA and Watford striker.
Lee Hughes - converted to Islam during his prison sentence after he was found guilty dor knocking down a boy to his death in a car accident.
Kemudian Hot News Indonesia Super League: Christian Gonzales (Persib Bandung) 4 Kali Top Score Liga Indonesia, Alhamdulillah menjadi Mu�alaf. Banyaknya para pesohor yang masuk Islam merupakan indikasi kebesaran Allah.
Hal ini sesuai dengan firman Allah dalam QS An Nasher Ayat 1-3 ( 1.Apabila telah datang pertolongan Allah dan kemenangan. 2. dan kamulihat manusia masuk agama Allah dengan berbondong-bondong, 3. makabertasbihlah dengan memuji Tuhanmu dan memohon ampunlah kepada-Nya.Sesungguhnya Dia adalah Maha penerima taubat.)
Writer: Erick KF
|Posted by Erick Kemal Fuad on January 1, 2010 at 7:53 PM||comments (0)|
Daily activities sometimes make we stress and hopeless, however as a Moslem's youngster we should have high motivation to face the morning. Below is Islamic Perspective in Stress Management writen by Shahid Athar, M.D.
While stress may be necessary for human survival, the excess of it certainly affects our health and productivity. It is claimed that in the United States nearly 20 million people suffer from stress in terms of attributing their illness or symptoms to it. Stress related compensation cost nearly $200 million per year. Loss of productivity and stress related illness directly or indirectly amounts to $50 billion per year. Many corporations and individuals are spending nearly $15 billion per year on stress management of their employees. ( Newsweek 0425 )
There is enough medical evidence to link stress to the causation of peptic ulcer disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease and depression. In addition, many common problems like tension headache, insomnia, impotency (in man), frigidity (in women), are stress related to causation of diabetes, suppression of immune system and development of cancer.
In our day to day life, stress affects peace at home, job performance at work, grades in school and even our eating and mating behavior.
Warning Signs Of Stress
The earliest signs of stress are irritability, mood swings, difficulty in sleep, l ack of concentration, abdominal distress, extreme sensitivity to criticism, weight gain of weight loss, fear of failure, poor appetite, or hunger, and increase dependence on tranquilizers or alcohol for sleep.
Conditions Which Cause Stress
Psychiatrists have identified some 50 stressors. In fact any change, good or bad, is stressful. A change in job, or job description, in school, residence, financial status, loss or gain of a family member or close friend, injury or illness, national calamity or news of riots or violence all can be extremely stressful. Muslims living in a non-Muslim society may acquire some additional stress. These may include such factors as preserving their identity, practicing Islam (i.e. in food matters or timing of prayer), defending Islam on a hostile media and settling conflicts between family members: the spouse, parent /child, and practicing / non practicing factions.
Who Are Prone to Stress
Although stress spares no one including children, certain professions get more then their share. They include the sales person, the stock broker, the secretary, the inner city school teacher, the air traffic controller, the medical intern, the police officer and those handling complaint departments. It is interesting to note that qualities like being ambitious, compulsive, high achieving, productivity oriented are looked upon as signs of efficiency by the employer, are also type A personality traits, so dangerous to our health. So the art is to have these qualities, with a cool type B personality in order to live happily and have a longer time.
Coping With Stress
Although we are all exposed to stress, why can some of us cope with it better then others ? Is it the way we deal with the stressor, or the way we are built? There is some evidence to suggest that some of us may be genetically predisposed to depression, or have deficiency in the level of neurotransmitters, the mood regulating hormones, or just do not produce enough adrenalin on demand.
A person's religious belief has an important bearing on his personality and his outlook in life. By putting the trust in God, a believer minimizes the stress on him by reducing his responsibility and power to control his failures.
Proven ways to handle stress as being practiced now range from meditation, sleep, exercise, socialization, biofeedback, psychotherapy and tranquilizers. In this article we are going to discuss how to deal with stress in the light of the Qur'an and the Sunnah.
Psychologically the stress results from the following factors.
Fear of the unknown, and our inability to recognize, foresee and control it.
Loss of things, and people in our life dear to us, and our inability to recover these losses or accept them.
Our inability to see through the future. In fact we might be more stressed if we do see the future.
Conflicts between the mind, and the reality and our failure to accept the reality (i.e. the phase of denial). It is the lack of the inner peace due to our internal conflicts which leads to the external disturbances in our behavior and affects our health.
Let us examine how the Qur'an deals with such situations. Our losses are a part of trial for us:
"Be sure We will test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives, but give glad tidings to those who are steadfast, who say when afflicted with calamity: To God we belong and to Him is our return. They are those on whom (descend) blessings from God and mercy and they are the ones that receive guidance." (Qur'an 2:155)
Whatever we are given is a gift from God. We are not their owners. Everything belongs to God and returns to Him. So if we don't own these things why mourn their loss or wax proud on receiving them.
Only God knows what our ultimate destiny is. We cannot peek into our future. We do, however, have a limited free will; we are free to choose between good or bad, to believe in God or not to believe in Him, but we have no control over future not related to our ability to act in the present - whether my wife will have a son or daughter, whether his / her eyes will be brown or black, or whether I will have an accident tomorrow or not. Worrying over such things is of no use.
Rejection of faith in the Qur'an is described as a disease, its cause being arrogance and reluctance to accept truth.
"In their heart there is a disease and God has increased their disease and grievous is their penalty because they lie to themselves". (Qur'an 2:10)
Thus when a man lies to himself, he creates an inner conflict - between his heart and the mind. In order to contain that conflict, the mind sends signals to glands for secretion of hormones like adrenalin which leads to rapid heart rate, perspiration, tremor, the basis of a lie detector tests.
This conflict could be due to "small" crimes like theft or adultery, or big crimes like rejection of God.
Three Stages Of Spiritual Development Of Soul Age
Nafsul Ammara: The Passionate Soul
"I do not absolve myself. Lo the (human) soul is prone to evil, save that whenever my Lord has mercy. Lo, my Lord is forgiving; merciful". (Qur'an 12:53)
This soul inclines toward sensual pleasure, passion and self gratification, anger, envy, greed, and conceit. Its concerns are pleasures of body, gratification of physical appetite, and ego. In a hadith we are told, "Your most - ardent - enemy is your evil self which resides within your body". (Bukhari)
If this evil soul is not checked, it will lead to unusual stress and its resultant effects.
Nafsul Lawammah: The Reproaching Soul
"Nay, I swear by the reproaching soul" (Qur'an 75:1)
This soul is conscious and full aware of evil, resists it, asks for God's grace and pardon, repents and tries to amend and hopes to achieve salvation.
"And (there are) others who have acknowledged their faults. They mix a righteous action with another that was bad. It may be that Allah will relent toward them. Lo Allah is relenting, merciful". (Qur'an 9:102)
"There are two impulses within us. One, spirit, which calls towards good and confirms the truth. He who feels this impulse should know that it comes from Allah. Another impulse comes from our enemy (devil), which leads to doubt and untruth and encourages evil. He who feels this should seek refuge in Allah from the accursed devil" (Hadith).
This soul warns people of their vain desire, guides and opens the door to virtue and righteousness. It is a positive step in spiritual growth.
Nafsul Mutma 'innah: The Satisfied Soul
"O (you) soul in (complete) rest and satisfaction. Come back to your Lord, well pleased (yourself) and well pleasing unto Him. Enter you then among My devotees, enter you in My heaven". (Qur'an 89-27-30)
This is the highest state of spiritual development. A satisfied soul is in the state of bliss, content and peace. The soul is at peace because it knows that in spite of its failures in this world, it will return to God. Purified of tension, it emerges triumphant from the struggle and resides in peace and bliss.
What Should We Do In Panic And Despair?
In panic situations non-believers behave differently from believers. They have no one to turn to, to ask for mercy and forgiveness, they know and believe not in any life other then this worldly life, over which they have no control. Naturally they get more depressed which in turn leads them to even more wrong doing. If they were used to casual drinking, after drinking, they will increase their consumption of alcohol and end up as alcoholics or habitual criminals.
In a state of depression a believer, on the other hand, is advised to do the following:
Increase Dhikr (remembrance of God).
"He guides to Himself those who turn to Him in penitence - Those who have believed and whose heart have rest in the remembrance of God. Verify in the remembrance of God, do hearts find rest". (Qur'an 13:27-28)
Be constant in their prayers.
"O you who believe, seek help with steadfastness and prayer. For God is with those who are steadfast". (Qur'an 2:153)
Pray to God for Forgiveness.
"And I have said: Seek forgiveness from your Lord. Lo He was ever forgiving". (Qur'an 71:10)
In addition to the above believers are also expected to constantly struggle to better ourselves.
"Surely God does not change the condition in which people are until they change that which is in themselves". (Qur'an 13:11)
Qur'anic Recitation In Reducing The Stress
"O mankind! There has come to you a direction from you Lord, and a healing for (the disease in your) heart, and for those who believe a guidance, and mercy. (Qur'an 10:57)
The echo of sound has a medical effect, and is now widely utilized. The recitation of Qur'an or listening to the same has a wholesome effect on the body, the heart and the mind. It is said that the letter 'alif' echoes to the heart and latter 'ya' echoes in the pineal gland in the brain. Dr. Ahmed El Kadi of Akbar Clinic, at Panama City, Florida, conducted and has published the effects of listening to the Qur'anic recitation on physiological parameters i.e. the heart rate, the blood pressure and the muscle tension and reported improvement in all, irrespective of whether the listener is a Muslim or a non- Muslim, Arab or non-Arab.2 Obviously it can postulated that those who can understand and enjoy the recitation, with a belief in it as word of God, will get maximum benefit.
Prophet Muhammad's Prayer During Stress
All the prophets, being human beings, had to undergo tests and trials which resulted in temporary stress. They constantly remembered God and received peace through His remembrance. The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), for example, himself used and advised his followers to use the following D'ua (prayer) in times of distress.
"Allah is sufficient for us, and He is an excellent guardian, and we repose our trust in Allah."
"Surely we belong to Allah and to Him shell we return. O Allah, I beseech you for the reward of my hardship. Reward me, and compensate me for it with something good."
Dr. Shahid Athar is a Clinical Associate Professor at Indiana University. He has written and published over 110 articles on Islam, authored "Peace Through Submission" and edited "Islamic Perspective in Medicine". He is a frequent speaker at many Muslim institutions, mosques, universities and churches all over the USA.
The above article was first published in Hamdard Medicus, Volume XII, No. 4, Winter 1989
For more details, please refer to Dr. Ahmed El-Kadi's article on this subject in this book. Islamic Perspectives in Medicine (pages 135 -140 )
|Posted by Erick Kemal Fuad on January 1, 2010 at 7:51 PM||comments (0)|
The first few years of the Prophets life saw him suffering repeated loss of his immediate relatives and carers. His father died when he was on a journey, perhaps unaware that his wife was pregnant. He stayed most of the first four or five years of his life with his wet nurse, Haleemah, in a desert encampment. It was a tradition among the top families in Makkah that they gave their newborn children to be nursed by women in the desert, believing that there the children would grow up stronger. Perhaps Makkah suffered attacks of infectious diseases, and keeping the children away gave them a better chance of survival. However, Haleemah and her family felt that Muhammad (peace be upon him) brought them some subtle blessing. Therefore, she was keen to keep him with her as long as possible. Hence she persuaded Aminah, his mother, to leave him with her. This was agreed, and Haleemah only returned the young Muhammad to his mother when he was five years of age. Only a year later, Muhammad lost his mother. He was then cared for by his grandfather, Abd Al-Muttalib, who was the most distinguished figure in Makkah and by now a very old man. Two years later Abd Al-Muttalib died and Muhammad moved home again, going now to his uncle, Abu Talib.
Abu Talib loved his orphan nephew, Muhammad, as one of his own children. There was about him an air of serenity and quiet acceptance of what life might present. Hence, he was dear to all around him, particularly his aunts. Yet Abu Talib and his family were the closest to his heart, because of the care he received in his uncles home. We see him, as he became a young man, talking to another uncle of his, Al-Abbas, during a time of hardship when all things were scarce in Makkah, saying: You see how things are in the city, with people finding it hard to make ends meet. Your brother, Abu Talib is a poor man, and he has a large family. We better do something to help him. How about the two of us taking one of his children each to look after? They went to Abu Talib with their proposal. Al-Abbas took Jaafar, and the Prophet took Ali. This was long before the start of Muhammads prophethood. The two young lads thus found good homes where they were welcome, and their fathers burden was significantly lightened.
His close relationship with his uncle, Abu Talib, continued for the rest of the latters life. The Prophet would have dearly loved that Abu Talib should accept Islam, but this was not to be. However, Abu Talib continued to extend his care and protection to his nephew against all opposition by his tribe, the Quraysh. Moreover, the Prophet continued to give Fatimah bint Asad, Abu Talibs wife, a special position of favor in his heart. He acknowledged her favor and unwavering care when he was a child. As he grew up, he always showed her dutiful respect and often favored her with generous gifts, according to his means.
Abu Talib died three years before the Prophets emigration to Madinah. Fatimah bint Asad followed the Prophet to Madinah sometime after he had settled there. The Prophet was so delighted with her arrival, welcoming her as one of his closest relatives. It was with deep grief that he later received the news of her death. He prayed God to give her a high position in heaven. He gave instructions to those who were preparing her body for burial to use his own garment to wrap her with. When her grave was ready, he went in first and lied where she was to be placed, praying that angels would attend her there. His companions looked at him, wondering why he did that when he never did it with any other funeral. They saw him praying for her forgiveness, with his eyes tearful. He said to them: Next to Abu Talib, she was the one who took best care of me when I was young.
Another person who earned the Prophets gratitude was Thuwaybah, a slave woman owned by his uncle Abu Lahab. She breast-fed him in his early days of life, before he was given to Haleemah. Thus, she nursed him for a few weeks after his birth. The Prophet cared well for her, inquiring after her when he was in Makkah. When he got married, his wife Khadeejah was very hospitable to her. Then at one point, Khadeejah approached Abu Lahab, proposing to buy Thuwaybah so that she might set her free. Abu Lahab would hear nothing of the sort. Abu Lahab, who stubbornly opposed the Islamic message and took a hostile attitude to the Prophet, could not countenance the prospect of Muhammad being seen in Makkah in such a light, showing a great favor to the slave woman who nursed him in his early days. Yet, when the Prophet immigrated to Madinah, Abu Lahab himself set Thuwaybah free. Therefore, the Prophet used to send her money and clothes whenever he could. He learnt of her death in year seven after his settlement in Madinah. When the news was brought to him, he asked about her son, Masrooh. He was informed that he died earlier, and that she had no other relatives.
While those we have mentioned had special positions with the Prophet because they looked after him when he was young, the Prophet was very kind to all his relatives. He respected his uncles, loved his aunts and was kind and friendly with all. He would visit anyone of them who was ill, praying for their recovery. Needless to say, that was the best thing such an ill person could hope for, because the Prophets prayers were always answered. He urged them all to do good works so that they would enter heaven on merit. He advised them that their relation with him would not benefit them unless they worked for their own salvation. Some of them opposed his message and took a hostile attitude. This was very painful to him. However, when they changed their attitude and accepted Islam, the Prophet received them with open arms, praying for their forgiveness.
Source: Arab News
|Posted by Erick Kemal Fuad on January 1, 2010 at 7:48 PM||comments (1)|
Among his names; Ibn Nufayl Ibn `Abd al-`Uzza Ibn Rayyah, Shaykh Al-Islam, Amir al-Mu?minin, Abu Hafs al-Qurashi al-`Adawi A Farouk.
Umar Ibn Al Khattab was described as fair-skinned with some reddishness, tall with a large build, fast-paced, and a skilled fighter and horseman. He embraced Islam after having fought it, in the year 6 of the Prophethood, at age twenty-seven. This was the result of the Prophet Mohammad?s explicit supplication:
"O Allah! Strengthen Islam with `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab."
In his time Islam reached Egypt, Syria, Sijistan, Persia, and other regions. He died a martyr at the age of sixty-six, stabbed in the back while praying, by a Sabean or Zoroastrian slave.
`Umar al-Faruq was second only to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq in closeness to Prophet Mohammad (PBUH).
Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said: "I have two ministers from the inhabitants of the heaven and two ministers from the inhabitants of the earth. The former are Jibreel and Mika?il, and the latter are Abu Bakr and `Umar." He said of the latter: "These two are [my] hearing and eyesight" and instructed his Companions: "Follow those that come after me: Abu Bakr and `Umar."
Umar was given the gift of true inspiration. Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) said:
"Allah has engraved truth on the tongue of `Umar and his heart" and "If there were a Prophet after me verily it would be `Umar."
Moreover, Umar Ibn AL Khattab had the unique distinction of having his views confirmed by the revelation in the Holy Qur?an: He said things which were confirmed by subsequent revelations. Examples for that:
"I said to Prophet Mohammad: "O Messenger of Allah! Why do we not pray behind Ibrahim?s Station?" Whereupon was revealed the verse: ". . . Take as your place of worship the place where Ibrahim stood (to pray). . ." (2:125); I said: "O Messenger of Allah! You should order your wives to cover because both the chaste and the wicked go in to see them," whereupon was revealed the verse: "... And when you ask of them (the wives of the Prophet) anything, ask it of them from behind a curtain. . ." (33:53) Then the Prophet?s wives banded together in their jealousy over him, so I said to them: If he divorced you, God will give him better wives that you? whereupon was revealed this verse "It may happen that his Lord, if he divorce you, will give him instead wives better than you, [submissive (to Allah), believing, pious, penitent, inclined to fasting, widows and maids]."(66:5)
He was distinguished in his power of separating truth from falsehood and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) conferred on him the title of Al Farouk (the separator between what's true and what's false), saying:
"In truth, the devil certainly parts ways with Umar."
Umar memorized Surrha Al-Baqara (1) in twelve years, and when he had learned it completely he slaughtered a camel. Imam Malik stated that on Umar's suggestion the words "I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah" were added to the adh⮠(the call for prayer), and likewise the words "Prayer is better than Sleep" to the adh⮠for the dawn prayer. However, the more correct report is that it is Belal who first inserted the latter formula in the call to the dawn prayer and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) retained it.
Umar Ibn Al-Khattab was the first Muslim ruler to establish a Public Treasury; the first Muslim ruler to levy Al Ushr, the Customs or Import Duty. It was levied on the goods of the traders of other countries who chose to trade in the Muslim dominions, at up to 10% of the goods imported and on a reciprocal basis. `Ushr was levied in a way to avoid hardships, and only on merchandise meant for sale, not goods imported for consumption or for personal use.
Also Umar was the first Muslim ruler to organize a census; the first Muslim ruler to strike coins; the first Muslim ruler to organize a system of canals for irrigation; and the first Muslim ruler to formally organize provinces, cities, and districts.
Moreover, Umar established the system of guest-houses and rest-houses on major routes to and from major cities. He established schools throughout the land and allocated liberal salaries for teachers. He was the first to ban temporary marriage (mut`a marriage), according to Prophet Mohammad?s earlier prohibition. Also Umar was the first Muslim ruler to place the law of inheritance on a firm basis. He was the first to establish trusts, and the first ruler in history to separate the judiciary from the executive.
He took pains to provide effective and speedy justice for the people. He set up an effective system of judicial administration under which justice was administered according to the principles of Islam. Judges were appointed at all administrative levels for the administration of justice and were chosen for their honesty and knowledge of Islamic law. High salaries were paid to them and they were appointed from among the wealthy and those of high social standing, to prevent being influenced by the social position of any litigants. The judges were not allowed to engage in trade.
From time to time, Umar used to issue edicts laying down the principles for the administration of justice. One of his edicts read:
"Glory to Allah! Verily Justice is an important obligation to Allah and to man. You have been charged with this responsibility. Discharge this responsibility so that you may win the approbation of Allah and the good will of the people. Treat the people equally in your presence, and in your decisions, so that the weak despair not of justice and the high-placed harbor no hope of favoritism. The onus of proof lies on the plaintiff, while the party who denies must do so on oath. Compromise is permissible, provided that it does not turn the unlawful into something lawful, and the lawful into something unlawful. Let nothing prevent you from changing your previous decision if after consideration you feel that the previous decision was incorrect. When you are in doubt about a question and find nothing concerning it in the Qur?an or the Sunnah of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), ponder the question over and over again. Ponder over the precedents and analogous cases, and then decide by analogy. A term should be fixed for the person who wants to produce witnesses. If he proves his case, discharge for him his right. Otherwise the suit should be dismissed. All Muslims are trustworthy, except those who have been punished with flogging, those who have borne false witness, or those of doubtful integrity."
One day Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari, the governor of Basra at the time, sent a letter to Umar Ibn Al Khattab complaining that the ordinances, instructions, and that letters from the Caliph were undated and therefore gave rise to problems linked to the sequence of their implementation.
Because of this and other similar problems of undatedness, Umar convened an assembly of scholars and advisors to consider the question of calendar reforms. The deliberations of this assembly resulted in the combined opinion that Muslims should have a calendar of their own. The point that was next considered was from when should the new Muslim calendar era begin.
Some suggested that the era should begin from the birth of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH), while others suggested that it should begin from the time of his death. `Ali suggested that the era should begin from the date the Muslims migrated from Mekkah to Al Madinah, and this was agreed upon.
The next question considered was the month from which the new era should start. Some suggested that it should start from the month of Rabi` al-Awwal, some from Rajab, others from Ramadan, others from Dhu al-Hijja. `Uthman suggested that the new era should start from the month of Muharram because that was the first month in the Arabic calendar at that time. This was agreed upon. Since the Migration had taken place in the month of Rabi` al-Awwal, two months and eight days after the first of Muharram that year, the date was pushed back by two months and eight days, and the new Hijri calendar began with the first day of Muharram in the year of the Migration rather than from the actual date of the Migration.
`Abd Allah Ibn `Isa Ibn Abi Layla related: "There were two dark lines in `Umar?s face marked by tears." Al-Hasan al-Basri and Hisham ibn al-Hasan narrated that `Umar sometimes lost consciousness after reciting a verse from the Qur?an, whereupon he would be taken ill and visited for days. Among `Umar?s sayings:
"O Allah! Grant me to die a martyr, and make my death be in your Prophet?s country."
"Take account of yourselves before your are brought to account."
Jabir narrated that he heard `Umar Ibn Al-Khattab say on the pulpit when he married Umm Kulthum, the daughter of `Ali and Fatima: "Do not disparage me [for marrying a young girl], for I heard the Prophet say: ?On the Judgment Day every means will be cut off and every lineage severed except my lineage.?" He desired to place himself in the Prophet?s lineage through this marriage due to the precedence of Ahl al-Bayt in the Prophet?s intercession. Umm Kulthum bore him two children, Zayd and Ruqayya.
From `Ubayd Allah ibn `Umar ibn Hafs: `Umar was see carrying a slaughtered animal on his back. He was asked why, and he replied: "I was infatuated with myself and wanted to humble myself."
As `Umar?s head lay in Ibn `Umar?s lap after being stabbed he said to him: "Lay my cheek on the ground." Then he said: "Woe to me, my mother?s woe to me if my Lord does not grant me mercy!" The next morning Al-Miswar woke him for the dawn prayer. `Umar said: "Yes, and there is no part in Islam for whoever leaves prayer." He prayed bleeding from his wounds.
|Posted by Erick Kemal Fuad on January 1, 2010 at 7:47 PM||comments (0)|
Ibn Sina, known as the 'doctor of doctors', was born in 370/980 in Afshana, his mother's home, near Bukhara.
His native language was Persian. His father, an official of the Samanid administration, had him very carefully educated at Bukhara. Ibn Sina is known in the West as Avicenna. He displayed exceptional intellectual prowess as a child and at the age of ten was already proficient in the Qur'an and the Arabic classics. During the next six years he devoted himself to Muslim Jurisprudence, Philosophy and Natural Science and studied Logic, Euclid, and the Almeagest. His intellectual independence was served by an extraordinary intelligence and memory, which allowed him to surpass his teachers at the age of fourteen.
He then shifted his attention to Medicine at the age of 17 years and found it, as described by him, "not difficult". He did, however, find difficulty in understanding Aristotle's Metaphysics, which he grasped only with the help of al-Farabi's commentary. Having cured the prince of khurasan of a severe illness, he was allowed to make use of the splendid library of the Samanid princes. At the age of eighteen he had mastered all the then known sciences. His subsequent progress was due only to his personal judgment.
He became a reputable physician at the age of 18 and was summoned to attend the Samani ruler Nuh ibn Mansur (reigned 976-997 C.E.), who, in gratitude for Ibn Sina's services, allowed him to use the royal library, and there he found as many rare and unique books as he wanted. His training through contact with life was at least equal to his development in intellectual speculation. At the age of twenty-one he wrote his first philosophical book.
The death of his father forced him to enter the administration in order to earn his living. His judgment was swiftly appreciated. Having consulted him on medical matters, the princes had recourse to him also in matters of politics. He was a minister several times, his advice being always listened to and appreciated; but people started to envy him, and he was sometimes persecuted by his enemies and sometimes coveted by princes opposing those to whom he wished to remain loyal. He took flight and was obliged to hide on several occasions, earning his living by medical consultations.
He then moved to Ray, near modern Teheran and established a busy medical practice. When Ray was besieged, Ibn Sina fled to Hamadan where he cured Prince Shamsud-Dawala of colic and was made Prime Minister. A mutiny of soldiers against him caused his dismissal and imprisonment, but subsequently the Prince, being again attacked by the colic, summoned him back, apologized and reinstated him! His life at this time was very tiring: during the day he was busy with the Prince's services, while a great deal of the night was passed in lecturing and dictating notes for his books. Students would gather in his house and read parts of his two great books.
Following the death of the prince, Ibn Sina fled to Isfahan after a few brushes with the law, including a period in prison. He spent his final years in the services of the ruler of the city, Ala al-Daula whom he advised on scientific and literary matters and accompanied on military campaigns.
His friends advised him to slow down and take life in moderation, but this wasn't his character and so he rejected their advice. "I prefer a short life with width to a narrow one with length", he used to say.
Al-Qifti states that Ibn Sina completed 21 major and 24 minor works on philosophy, medicine, theology, geometry, astronomy and the like. Another source (Brockelmann) attributes 99 books to Ibn Sina comprising 16 on medicine, 68 on theology and metaphysics 11 on astronomy and four on verse. Most of these were in Arabic; but in his native Persian he wrote a large manual on philosophical science entitled Danish-naama-i-Alai and a small treatise on the pulse.
Among Ibn Sina's scientific works, the leading two are the Kitab al-Shifa (Book of Healing), a philosophical encyclopaedia based upon Aristotelian traditions and the al-Qanun al-Tibb which represents the final categorisation of Greco-Arabian thoughts on Medicine.
Of Ibn Sina's 16 medical works, eight are versified treatises on such matter as the 25 signs indicating the fatal termination of illnesses, hygienic precepts, proved remedies, anatomical memoranda etc. Amongst his prose works, after the great Qanun, the treatise on cardiac drugs, of which the British Museum possesses several fine manuscripts, is probably the most important, but it remains unpublished.
The most famous and most important of Ibn Sina's works is the Qanun. It recognizes the contagious nature of phthisis (tuberculosis of the lung) and the spread of disease by water and soil. It gives a scientific diagnosis of ankylostomiasis and attributes the condition to an intestinal worm. The Qanun points out the importance of dietetics and how far the environment can affect the health and the surgical use of oral anaesthetics. Ibn Sina advised surgeons to treat cancer in its earliest stages, ensuring the removal of all the diseased tissue. The Qanun's materia medica considers some 760 drugs, explaining their application and effectiveness. He recommended the testing of a new drug on animals and humans prior to general use.
Ibn Sina stressed the close relationship between emotions and the physical condition and felt that music had a definite physical and psychological effect on patients.
The Arabic text of the Qanun was published in Rome in 1593 and was therefore one of the earliest Arabic books to see print. It was translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century. This 'Canon', with its encyclopedic content, its systematic arrangement and philosophical plan, soon worked its way into a position of pre-eminence in the medical literature of the age displacing the works of Galen, al-Razi and al-Majusi, and becoming the text book for medical education in the schools of Europe.
In the museum at Bukhara, there are displays showing many of Ibn Sina's writings, surgical instruments from the period and paintings of patients undergoing treatment. An impressive monument to the life and works of the man who became known as the 'doctor of doctors' still stands outside Bukhara museum and his portrait hangs in the Hall of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Paris.
Ibn Sina got imprisoned, escaped, lived for fourteen years in relative peace at the court of Isfahan and died at Hamadan, during an expedition of the prince 'Ala' al-Dawla, in 428/1037. He was buried there; and a monument was erected to him to celebrate the (hidhri) millenary of his birth.
|Posted by Erick Kemal Fuad on January 1, 2010 at 7:45 PM||comments (1)|
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) emphasized that praying is considered the back-bone of Islam. It is very important that Muslims make sure they perform their daily prayers properly, as commanded by Allah and as explained by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).
Here are some tips that Muslims can use to improve their prayers;
1-In Islam, it is highly recommended that Muslims perform the obligatory prayers in congregation (with a group: ?Jama?a?).
Allah (swt) orders Muslims to bow and prostrate to Him;
(And observe Prayer and pay the Zakat (almsgiving), and bow down with those who bow.) [Qur?an 2:43]
There are many saying by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) that discuss the virtue and importance of performing prayers in congregation. Ibn Omar quoted Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as saying;
"The reward of praying (salah) performed in congregation outweighs that of (salah) performed individually by twenty-seven degrees." (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
2-Muslims should arrange their life according to their prayers, and they should understand the difference between performing prayers on time and delaying them. When prayers are carried out on time, they will be much more effective than postponed prayers.
3-Muslims must try to do a routine amount of supplementary prayers (Nafl) because they are regarded as a compensation for obligatory prayers that were done in a weak manner.
4-Although it is not obligatory, but to improve one's prayer, it is always better to refresh our ablution even if it is still valid from our last prayer. Ablution is primarily for physical cleansing but it is also considered a symbol of spiritual cleansing. Muslims should not engage in worldly affairs after performing ablution, they should go directly to prayers.
5-Muslims should start their prayers with ?Takbir? (Saying Allaho Akbar), this is the point when we must disconnect from the outer world, and begin a direct communication with Allah.
6-Bowing and Prostration (Sujood) are signs of giving in selfishness and they should be considered as a feeling of humbleness in front of Allah (swt). However, prostration is a higher degree of humbleness before Allah (swt), because bowing is not enough to show the humble feeling of a believer.
7-Muslims must never take the ?tashahod? in the last part of their prayers lightly. In fact, ?tashahod? is the concluding part of the prayer. It is the stage when you renew your allegiance to Allah and his messenger.
8- Muslims must dress properly when praying, because praying is talking to Allah, and one should do his/her best when standing before Allah, narrating his words. Your attire should be decent and clean, your hair should be combed, it is preferable that you brush your teeth and moderately perfume yourself.
9- Before praying, one can prepare himself by saying ?Iqama? with concentration and doing ?Istighfar? (to ask for Allah?s forgiveness).
10- The short pause after ?rokoo? before prostration (Sojood) is very important, It is narrated that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to stay long in these pausing positions.
11- Allah says in the Qur?an that praying restrains from shameful sins (Fahesha), therefore Muslims should perform their prayers with a clear conscious, and they should avoid shameful and unjust deeds to be able to stand before Allah (swt) in their prayers.
12-Muslims must avoid hypocrisy ?reya?a? when it comes to praying, one of the signs of hypocrisy could be praying in the presence of others and ignoring prayers while alone. The benefits of praying are achieved in your heart, between yourself and Allah, and not with others.
|Posted by Erick Kemal Fuad on January 1, 2010 at 9:51 AM||comments (0)|
Inilah faktor-faktor kemenangan yang hakiki: tsabat (teguh pendirian) saat berhadapan dengan musuh, berhubungan dengan Allah melalui dzikir, taat kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya, menghindari perselisihan dan perpecahan, sabar menghadapi beban berat perang, serta menghindari sikap angkuh, riya’, dan sewenang-wenang.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ فِئَةً فَاثْبُتُوا وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ (45) وَأَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَا تَنَازَعُوا فَتَفْشَلُوا وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ وَاصْبِرُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ (46)
“Hai orang-orang yang beriman, apabila kamu memerangi pasukan (musuh), maka berteguh hatilah kamu dan sebutlah (nama) Allah sebanyak-banyaknya agar kamu beruntung. Dan taatlah kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya dan janganlah kamu berbantah-bantahan, yang menyebabkan kamu menjadi gentar dan hilang kekuatanmu dan bersabarlah. Sesungguhnya Allah berserta orang-orang yang sabar. Dan janganlah kamu menjadi seperti orang-orang yang keluar dari kampungnya dengan rasa angkuh dan dengan maksud riya’ kepada manusia serta menghalangi (orang) dari jalan Allah. Dan (ilmu) Allah meliputi apa yang mereka kerjakan.” (QS. 8: 45-46)
Inilah faktor-faktor kemenangan yang hakiki: tsabat (teguh pendirian) saat berhadapan dengan musuh, berhubungan dengan Allah melalui dzikir, taat kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya, menghindari perselisihan dan perpecahan, sabar menghadapi beban berat perang, serta menghindari sikap angkuh, riya’, dan sewenang-wenang.
Tsabat (teguh) adalah awal perjalanan menuju kemenangan. Kelompok yang menang adalah yang paling teguh. Tahukah orang-orang mukmin bahwa musuh mereka menghadapi kesulitan yang lebih berat daripada apa yang mereka hadapi, dan bahwa merasakan sakit seperti mereka, tetapi musuh mereka tidak mengharapkan sesuatu dari Allah seperti yang orang-orang mukmin harapkan? Jadi, musuh Islam tidak punya motivasi harapan kepada Allah yang bisa meneguhkan pendirian dan hati mereka! Seandainya orang-orang mukmin bisa teguh barang sebentar, maka musuh mereka pasti patah semangat lalu kalah. Apa yang bisa menggoyahkan kaki orang-orang mukmin saat mereka yakin akan memperoleh salah satu dari dua kebaikan: syahid atau kemenangan? Sementara itu, musuh mereka hanya menginginkan kehidupan dunia. Mereka sangat tamak terhadap kehidupan dunia, tidak memiliki harapan terhadap kehidupan sesudahnya. Kehidupan mereka hanyalah di dunia.
Banyak berdzikir kepada Allah saat berhadapan dengan musuh merupakan arahan abadi bagi setiap mukmin. Ia juga merupakan ajaran tetap yang mengakar di hati kelompok mukmin. Al-Qur’an telah menceritakannya dalam sejarah umat Muslim dalam parade iman sepanjang sejarah.
Diantara kisah yang dituturkan al-Qur’an adalah ucapan para penyihir Fira’un ketika hati mereka menyerah kepada iman secara tiba-tiba. Para penyihir itu berkata:
“Dan kamu tidak menyalahkan kami, melainkan karena kami telah beriman kepada ayat-ayat Tuhan kami ketika ayat-ayat itu datang kepada kami.’ (Mereka berdoa), ‘Ya Tuhan kami, limpahkanlah kesabaran kepada kami dan wafatkanlah kami dalam keadaan berserah diri (kepada-Mu).” (al-A’raf : 26)
Begitu pula kisah orang-orang mukmin minoritas dari kalangan Bani Israil saat mereka menghadapi Jalut dan pasukannya:
“Tatkala mereka nampak oleh Jalut dan tenteranya, mereka pun (Thalut dan tentaranya) berdoa, ‘Ya Tuhan kami, tuangkanlah kesabaran atas diri kami, dan kokohkanlah pendirian kami dan tolonglah kami terhadap orang-orang kafir’” (al-Baqarah: 250)
Begitu pula kisah tentang kelompok-kelompok mukmin sepanjang sejarah saat menghadapi perang:
“Dan berapa banyak Nabi yang berperang bersama-sama mereka sejumlah besar dari pengikut (nya) yang bertakwa. Mereka tidak menjadi lemah karena bencana yang menimpa mereka di jalan alah, dan tidak lesu, dan tidak (pula) menyerah (kepada musuh). Allah menyukai orang-orang yang sabar. Tidak ada doa mereka selain ucapan, ‘Ya Tuhan kami, ampunilah dosa-dosa kami dan tindakan kami yang berlebih-lebihan dalam urusan kami dan tetapkanlah pendirian kami, dan tolonglah kami terhadap kaum yang kafir.” (Ali Imran: 146-147).
Ajaran ini telah mengakar di dalam jiwa jama‘ah muslim, sehingga
inilah yang menjadi watak mereka saat menghadapi musuh. Sesudah itu,
Allah mengisahkan kelompok yang mendapatkan luka-luka dalam perang
Uhud. Ketika mereka diajak berperang pada hari kedua, maka ajaran ini
hadir dalam jiwa mereka:
“(Yaitu) orang-orang (yang menaati Allah dan Rasul) yang kepada mereka ada orang-orang yang mengatakan, ‘Sesungguhnya manusia telah mengumpulkan pasukan untuk menyerang kamu, karena itu takutlah kepada mereka,’ maka perkataan itu menambah keimanan mereka dan mereka menjawab, ‘Cukuplah Allah menjadi penolong kami dan Allah sebaik-baiknya Pelindung’” (Ali Imran (3): 173)
Dzikir kepada Allah saat berhadapan dengan musuh memainkan banyak fungsi. Ia menghubungkan umat Islam dengan kekuatan yang tidak terkalahkan dan melahirkan keyakinan kepada Allah yang menolong para kekasih-Nya. Pada saat yang sama, dzikir dapat menghadirkan hakikat perang, motivasi, dan tujuannya ke dalam hati, yaitu perang demi Allah, untuk menetapkan uluhiyah-Nya di muka bumi, dan mengusir para thaghut yang mencuri uluhiyah ini. Jadi, perang tersebut bertujuan agar kalimat Allah menjadi yang paling tinggi, bukan untuk kejayaan pribadi atau bangsa. Selain itu, perintah tersebut menegaskan kewajiban dzikir kepada Allah di saat-saat paling kritis dan situasi paling sulit. Semua itu merupakan inspirasi yang memiliki arti penting dalam perang. Semua inspirasi tersebut dapat diwujudkan oleh ajaran Robbani ini.
Sedangkan tujuan taat kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya adalah agar orang-orang mukmin turun ke kancah perang dalam keadaan berserah diri kepada Allah, sehingga berbagai penyebab perselisihan dapat dicegah dengan ketaatan tersebut:
“...Dan janganlah kamu berbantah-bantahan, yang menyebabkan kamu menjadi gentar dan hilang kekuatanmu...” (46)
Manusia tidak saling berbantah kecuali ketika kepemimpinan dan komando terbagi-bagi, dan pada saat hawa nafsu menguasai pendapat dan pikiran. Apabila manusia berserah diri kepada Allah dan patuh kepada Rasul-Nya, maka penyebab pertama dan utama perselisihan dapat dihilangkan—meskipun sudut pandang terhadap masalah yang dihadapi berbeda-beda. Karena hal yang memicu perselisihan bukan perbedaan sudut pandang, melainkan hawa nafsu yang mengagitasi tiap orang untuk memaksakan sudut pandangnya meskipun ia mengetahui mana yang benar!
Hal yang menyebabkan percekcokan adalah meletakkan ego dan kebenaran dalam satu timbangan, lalu memenangkan ego di atas kebenaran! Dari sini Allah memberi ajaran untuk taat kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya dalam perang. Ini adalah bagian dari proses kontrol yang harus dilakukan dalam perang. Itulah ketaatan terhadap pimpinan tertinggi di dalam perang. Dari sini muncul perintah untuk menaati panglima yang memimpin perang. Ketaatan tersebut adalah ketaatan dari hati yang mendalam, bukan sebatas ketaatan struktural di tengah pasukan yang tidak berjihad karena Allah, dimana loyalitas kepada pemimpin tidak didasarkan loyalitas kepada Allah sama sekali. Perbedaan antara keduanya sangat jauh.